“As lower- and middle-income countries increase their economic growth and start to use antibiotics more, we don’t want them to fall into the same trap that higher-income countries have,” he said. “While we need to reduce consumption globally, we need to do it in a safe and effective manner that still allows low-income countries access to antibiotics.”
>> Read more: Why taking unneeded antibiotics might make you fat, and other facts to know
The U.S. total of 3.3 billion doses for 2015 was relatively unchanged from 3.4 billion doses in 2000. But the population rose during that period, so the picture looked better on a per-person basis, Klein said. Study authors calculated a rate of 28.2 doses per 1,000 U.S. residents every day in 2015, down 14 percent from 32.9 doses per 1,000 residents in 2000.
In the process, the U.S. fell from the top five countries in per-capita antibiotic use:
- In 2000, the five highest consumption rates occurred in high-income countries: France, New Zealand, Spain, Hong Kong, and the U.S., the authors found, using sales data from the global research firm IQVIA.
- In 2015, three of the five highest rates occurred in low- or middle-income countries: Turkey (first), Tunisia (second), and Algeria (fifth). Higher-income countries Spain and Greece were third and fourth on the list.
The results from the U.S., Japan, and some other developed nations were promising, said Jason C. Gallagher, a clinical professor and infectious diseases specialist at Temple University’s School of Pharmacy.
“But you had much of the rest of the world catching up, and that is discouraging,” said Gallagher, who was not involved in the research. That’s a concern because in a global economy, a drug-resistant pathogen can spread easily from one country to the next.
Antibiotics promote resistance in this way: Though they may be effective against a specific organism that is causing disease, they kill other microbes in the process. That means clear sailing for any remaining bacteria that were resistant to the drug, enabling them to multiply.
And contrary to popular perception, that problem can arise even when antibiotics are used appropriately, Temple’s Gallagher said.
“Any use leads to resistance,” he said. “If you’re using amoxicillin to treat someone’s strep infection, the bacteria in your gut do not care. It can still lead to a resistant infection elsewhere in the body.”
Not included in the study is another cause for concern: the overuse of antibiotics in livestock. In the U.S., the drugs are given to farm animals in far greater numbers than to human patients.
While the drugs are needed to treat sick animals, some farmers have traditionally used them as a preventive measure or even just to promote growth. Public health experts warn that such overuse may lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which in turn can spread from farm animals to humans.
FOLLOW THE LINK FOR THE FULL REPORT – JR